Thursday, 20 January 2022

Thursday 20th January

A Siberian Chiffchaff was in the Entrance Bushes with 22 Great-crested Grebe offshore, two Shoveler on the Main Pond and 190 Teal, 45 Shelduck, 24 Wigeon and two Greenshank in the estuary. 


Siberian Chiffchaff - Alan Keatley

Tuesday, 18 January 2022

Tuesday 18th January

The Spoonbill was again in the estuary but no other news was received. 

Sunday, 16 January 2022

Sunday 16th January

Counts from the estuary on the dropping morning tide included 298 Dark-bellied and a Pale-bellied Brent Geese, 157 Teal, 133 Curlew, 83 Bar-tailed Godwit, 78 Shelduck, 71 Turnstone, 20 Sanderling, 17 Wigeon10 Greenshank and six Red-breasted Merganserwith three Peregrine on Bull Hill.

Elsewhere two Pintail. four Red-throated and a Great Northern Diver were offshore, a Siberian Chiffchaff, 12 Long-tailed Tit, three Chiffchaff and three Goldcrest were in the bushes and three Little Grebe were on the Main Pond with single Kingfisher, Water Rail and Shoveler.

Saturday, 15 January 2022

Saturday 15th January

Counts from the estuary included 262 Teal, 260 Dark-bellied Brent Geese, 107 Common and an adult Mediterranean Gull, 96 Shelduck, 38 Wigeon, 10 Red-breasted Merganser, six Greenshank, four Egyptian Geese and a Kingfisher.

Elsewhere at least 60 auks were feeding offshore in flat calm conditions with 54 Great-crested Grebe, 12 Red-throated and four Great Northern Diver; 800+ roosting Starling, four Shoveler and a second Kingfisher were at the Main Pond with a Siberian Chiffchaff in Dead Dolphin Wood and two Siskin in the Entrance Bushes. 

Just outside the Recording Area a Great White Egret flew south over the village and the two Black-necked Grebe were off Starcross. 

Wildlife News: A Fox was hunting around the Main Pond early morning.

Friday, 14 January 2022

Friday 14th January

The immature Spoonbill was in the saltmarsh corner late afternoon but not other news was received. 

Thursday, 13 January 2022

Thursday 13th January

A sunny but chilly start, with a widespread ground frost and icy puddles, the bushes were very quiet, although the first Bullfinch of the year was in Dead Dolphin Wood. On the Main Pond the Little Grebe were still nest building with three Shoveler and a Water Rail present.  With the tide low, counts were limited to 99 Shelduck, 12 Sanderling, four Red-breasted Merganser and a Greenshank.

Wildlife News: A few insects ventured out into the afternoon with a couple of Buff-tailed Bumblebee and the first Honey Bee of the year the Hebe. Also, a single Yellow Dungfly and a couple of Calliphora vicina warming themselves up in the sunshine, all typical insects for this time of year.

Honey Bee - Alan Keatley

Calliphora vicina - Alan Keatley

Tuesday, 11 January 2022

Tuesday 11th February

A lunchtime visit for the incoming tide revealed 1000+ Dunlin, 143 Grey and 38 Ringed Plover, 68 Brent Geese, 20 Knot and five Sanderling, with a Kestrel and two Cirl Bunting on site and 18 Great-crested Grebe and a Great Northern Diver offshore.

Kestrel - Dean Hall

Wildlife News: At least three Common Dolphin were putting on a good show offshore. 

Monday, 10 January 2022

Monday 10th January

An afternoon visit on the dropping tide saw a Water Pipit on the saltmarsh (no public access) with 260 Teal, 68 Shelduck, nine Red-breasted Merganser, three Greenshank and a Kingfisher in the estuary. 

Sunday, 9 January 2022

Sunday 9th January

Counts from the estuary included the two Black-necked Grebe, 358 Teal, 128 Snipe, 69 Redshank, 18 Red-breasted Merganser, 16 Wigeon, seven Greenshank, two Goldeneye, an adult Mediterranean Gull, a Bar-headed Goose and a Great Northern Diver.

Elsewhere 11 Great Northern and four Red-throated Diver were offshore with 20 Great-crested Grebe; 700 Starling, five Shoveler and a Kingfisher were at the Main Pond and seven Water Rail, four Chiffchaff and a Siberian Chiffchaff were on site. 

Shoveler - Dave Jewell

Green Woodpecker - Alan Keatley

Saturday, 8 January 2022

Saturday 8th January

A very wet and grey day, seawatching during the day saw counts of 44 Gannet, 31 Great-crested Grebe, 10 Guillemot, nine Great Northern and three Red-throated Diver, five Kittiwake, three Razorbill, a Fulmar and the year's first Common Scoter.

Counts from the estuary included 1700 Dunlin, 165 Grey and 24 Ringed Plover, 110 Bar-tailed Godwit, 96 Dark-bellied Brent Geese,  89 Shelduck, 23 Sanderling, the first two Lesser Black-backed Gull of the year, two Goldeneye and a Great Northern Diver.

Elsewhere a Siberian Chiffchaff near the Main Pond with a single Goldcrest and Chiffchaff. On the pond five Shoveler and single Little Grebe, Water Rail and Kingfisher.

Friday, 7 January 2022

Friday 7th January

An early visit before the rain arrived saw the first Sparrowhawk of the year in the Entrance Bushes, five Shoveler, two Grey Heron and a Siberian Chiffchaff at the Main Pond with a Great Northern Diver off John's Watch.

Counts from the estuary included 168 Bar-tailed Godwit, 148 Grey and 14 Ringed Plover, 44 Knot, 16 Sanderling, five Greenshank and a female Goldeneye

Thursday, 6 January 2022

Thursday 6th January

No news was received. The 2021 Bird Report and Wildlife Review are now both available to download below. 

                            Download                                                                    Download
 

Wednesday, 5 January 2022

Wednesday 5th January

Counts from the estuary included 1500 Dunlin, 145 Knot, 130 Grey and 18 Ringed Plover and five Pintail. Elsewhere seven Red-throated Diver and 29 Great-crested Grebe were offshore, five Shoveler were on the Main Pond and two Chiffchaff and a Siberian Chiffchaff were in the bushes. 

Wildlife News: Several Buff-tailed Bumblebee and a Seven-spot Ladybird were making the most of the sunny weather. 

Wildlife Review 2021- Wasps and Sawflies

Wasps

No less than 51 species across several families were recorded during the year including seven new for the Recording Area. This was a good return for a very large and diverse suborder of insects that often require specimens to enable identification.

Social wasps were the first on the wing with Common Wasp Vespula vulgaris and German Wasp V.germanica appearing by early April, several nests of both species were found and the wasps were active well into November. A Median Wasp Dolichovespula media was found on 28 August. A couple of Hornet V.crabro were found in September and October, a good return for a species that is less than annual.

Hornet - Alan Keatley

The first new species of the year was a chalcid wasp on 14 May, this rarely observed tiny wasp was identified as Encyrtus infidus, a parasite of scale insects. Coincidentally the last new species of the year on 12 December was also a chalcid parasite of scale insects, Microterys seyon.

Encyrtus infidus - Alan Keatley

The main season for solitary wasps starts mid May and goes onto October for some species. The reserve is the home to many mason and digger wasp species. No less than 16 digger wasp and four mason wasp species were recorded. One new digger wasp was found, a Red-bodied Stem Wasp Rhopalum clavipes on 6 August, with Minute Black Wasp Diodontus minutus on 9 July having gone unnoticed for many years. 

Red-bodied Stem Wasp - Alan Keatley

The four mason wasps recorded were Early Mason Wasp Ancistrocerus nigricornis, Little Mason Wasp Microdynerus exili, Small-notched Mason Wasp A.gazella and Willow Mason Wasp Symmorphus bifasciatus.

A good place to look for these wasps is on flowering umbellifers from June onwards, with Beewolf Philanthus triangulum, Common Ectemnius E.continuus, Common Spiny Digger Wasp Oxybelus uniglumis, Field Digger Wasp Mellinus arvensis, Large Ectemnius E.cephalotes, Ornate-tailed Digger Wasp Cerceris rybyenis and Slender-bodied Digger Wasp Crabro cribrarius all nectaring on these as well as other flowers such as Water Mint and Gypsywort.

Beewolf - Kevin Rylands

Others are more readily found on leaves and bare ground and the following species were found; Crossocerus megacephalus, C.quadrimaculatus & C.wesmaeli, Dryudella pinguis, Four-banded Digger Wasp Gorytes quadrifasciatus and Shieldbug Digger Wasp Astata boops. Three-spotted Digger Wasp Nysson trimaculatus was seen searching out Four-banded Digger Wasp nests to lay its eggs. 

Spider hunting wasps could be seen from from 31 May with the Red-legged Spider Wasp Episyron rufipes nectaring on Hogweed. Spider wasps spend their time on bare ground seeking out spider prey with Leaden Spider Wasp Pompilus cinereus the most obvious. A new species for site, Variable Spider Wasp Dipogon variegatus found on 14 August.

Leaden Spider Wasp (male & female) - Alan Keatley

Red-banded Sand Wasp Ammophila sabulosa, the only invertebrate on the SSSI citation, were looking for caterpillars along the Dune Ridge from 27 May, with Dull Cuckoo Wasp Hedychridium roseum seeking its host - Shieldbug Digger Wasp from 31 July. The Javelin Wasp Gasteruption jaculator was also active from the same date. Another new species found was the strange wingless wasp, Gelis agilis.

Hedychridium roseum - Alan Keatley

Galls wasps are rarely observed, or at least identified, as adults but the galls they on host plants help indicate their presence. Several galls were found including two new species on Oak, Smooth Spangled Gall Wasp Neuroterus albipes and Artichoke Gall Wasp Andricus foecundatrix. Other species recorded included Bedeguar Gall Wasp Diplolepis rosae (Robin's Pincushion) on Rose, Ram’s-horn Gall Wasp A.aries, Silk-Button Spangle Gall Wasp N.numismalis, Oak Marbled Gall Wasp A.kollariPasty Gall Wasp N.saliens, Oyster Gall Wasp N.anthracinus and Knopper Gall Wasp A.quercuscalicis, all on Oak, Bramble Stem Gall Wasp Diastrophus rubi and Cat’s-ear Stem Gall Wasp Phanacis hypochoeridis.

Andricus foecundatrix Artichoke Gall - Kevin Rylands

Ichneumon wasps are frequently found on site, but mainly go unnamed due to the complexity of identification. Several can be identified and the following were seen this year; Enicospilus ramidulus on 10 June, Amblyteles armatorius on 12 June, Pimpla rufipes on 3 September, Apechthis compunctor on 30 October, Stenichneumon culpator (a new species) on 4 November and Ophion obscuratus caught in a light-trap on 9 November.

Amblyteles armatorius - Alan Keatley

Sawflies

Sawflies are in the same order as bees, ants and wasps (Hymenoptera), in many species identification is difficult, however association with a particular foodplant and their larval leaf mines can help.

A total of 20 species were recorded this year including nine new species. The Warren sawfly list now stands at 41.

The first of the year was also a new species; Monophadnus pallescens, a black sawfly associated with buttercups, it was recorded on 8 April. Another new species was found on 17 April, was Euura bergmanni, a willow sawfly. 

Euura bergmanni - Alan Keatley

The similar looking Aglaostigma aucupariae and A.fulvipes, both associated with bedstraws were found on 29 April and 7 May respectively. They are common on site and can be often found together. Bramble Sawfly Arge cyanocrocea and Marcophya duodecimpunctata - a grass and sedge feeding species, were seen on 19 May. 

Aglaostigma fulvipes - Alan Keatley

Another common species the Dog Rose Sawfly Macrophya annulata, a black and red sawfly that mimics a spider hunting wasp in appearance and behaviour, was added on 19 June.

The Rose Leaf-rolling Sawfly Blennocampa phyllocolpa and Scolioneura viana, a Birch sawfly were recorded on 20 June, the latter also a new species for the Warren. 

In July Heterarthrus vagans, an Alder sawfly - on 11th and H.aceris, a Sycamore sawfly on 15th were also identified by larval leaf mines, the latter a new species.  The Oak Slug Sawfly Caliroa annulipes, the second new species of the month was added on 18th. The Turnip Sawfly Anthalia rosae emerged in large numbers from 29th.

Monophadnus pallescens - Alan Keatley

Other sawflies identified by leaf mine included; Scolioneura betuleti on Birch on 12 August, Hemichroa australis on Birch and Alder on 12 September, Fenusa pumila on Birch on 26 September, Fenuelia nana on Birch on 29 September and two new species in November, Profenusa pygmaea on Oak on 3rd and Heterarthrus ochropoda on Poplar on 5th.

Tuesday, 4 January 2022

Tuesday 4th January

At low tide 55 Dark-bellied Brent Geese and six Turnstone were feeding on the exposed rockpools at Langstone Rock. No other news was received. 

Wildlife Review 2021 - Mammals and other vertebrates

Mammals 

With records from 2020 and an unfortunate tideline corpse found on 9 May, Hedgehog still maintains a foothold on site, sadly the same cannot be said of Mole with no molehills now for over two years near the amusements.

Rabbit numbers continue to decline as a result of disease, apart from the Spring sightings of na├»ve young bunnies, numbers seen were worryingly low, especially later in the year. The lower numbers may also affect rare plants that rely on grazing rabbits to keep vegetation finely cropped.

Rabbit - Alan Keatley

Two of the three shrew species were recorded, no reports of Water Shrew, with Common Shrew on 18 May and the scarcer Pygmy Shrew on 12 September, as the norm with shrews sightings these were of dead animals. 

Pipistrelle bats are a regular feature over the Warren at dusk with both Common and Soprano recorded this year, two other bat species were over the Golf Course but their identity could not be confirmed, a Brown/Grey Long-eared on 24 June and a Whiskered/Brant's on the 29 September.

A Grey Squirrel found near the Main Pond and Golf Course between 10-19 September was a record stayer for this species, no doubt an adventurous youngster from the mainland. The majority of records are from early autumn.

Grey Squirrel - Lee Collins

The most likely vole to now be seen on site is the well-established Water Vole with sightings from the Main Pond and Golf Course throughout the year. The more numerous, but less likely to be seen Field Vole provided food for the ever-present Kestrel on site, especially during autumn and winter. A brave or foolhardy Wood Mouse was seen up an apple tree on 26 October and a despite a presumed continuous presence just one Brown Rat was recorded, around the Amusements in November.

Land predators were seemingly scarce this year with only a couple of Fox and Stoat and a single Weasel sightings, although tracks along the Dune Ridge indicate they are still regularly patrolling the Warren.

Common Dolphin and Harbour Porpoise were seen occasionally throughout the year off Langstone Rock reflecting the increasing numbers in Lyme Bay. However, there were no sightings of Bottle-nosed Dolphin for the second year running and with no occurrences in Torbay this year the species is probably lost from the area.

One or two Grey Seal were regular through the year with a bull often calling to the female in autumn. A single Common Seal was seen in December.

Reptiles and amphibians 

At least a dozen Common Lizard, including juveniles, were found basking near the hide in September indicating a good breeding season for this species. This may not be the same for Sand Lizard as sightings were only occasional. The erosion of breeding areas by storms will have a continuing effect on numbers of this introduced species. 

Common Lizard - Alan Keatley

A Slow-worm found on the Golf Course on 12 August was a good find as sightings have been in decline in recent years. Common Toad were active from 7 March and the increasing Common Frog noted from 31 July.

Common Frog - Alan Keatley

Fish

Fifteen fish species were recorded this year, some marine species from shore anglers and others from beachcombing or rock pooling at Langstone Rock. 

Highlights include two new species;  a Red Gurnard on 7 March and a Worm Pipefish on 31 March, both found on the beach at low tide.

Red Gurnard - Simon Thurgood

At least fifty shoaling Common Rudd in the Main Pond in September is some indication of numbers, these didn't go unnoticed by a Grey Heron taking advantage of this feeding opportunity.

A Starry Smooth-hound feeding in the estuary shallows on 25 September surprised not only the observer but also an on-looking Mute Swan. The second site record of a Atlantic Bluefin Tuna was offshore on 20 November reflects the growing numbers in Lyme Bay after the first in the estuary last year.

Starry Smoothhound - Alan Keatley

Monday, 3 January 2022

Monday 3rd January

Counts from the estuary included the two Black-necked Grebe, a Pale-bellied and 386 Dark-bellied Brent Geese, 134 Carrion Crow, 96 Common Gull, 84 Shelduck, seven Greenshank, four Red-breasted Merganser, three Mediterranean Gull and a Kingfisher.

Elsewhere three Great Northern and two Red-throated Diver were offshore, with two Siberian Chiffchaff and 11 Cirl Bunting on site and 800+ Starling roosting at the Main Pond. 

No news was received from the morning tide and the evening tide was after dark, so it is not sure if the Spoonbill is still roosting on site.  

Wildlife News: At least seven Common Dolphin were off the seawall early afternoon. 

Wildlife Review 2021 - Moths

A total of 326 species were recorded during the year, mostly from leafmines and light trapping undertaken on the Golf Course on 10 occasions. A remarkable 46 new species were added to the Warren list, including six ‘macro’ moths.

These included a number of presumably overlooked common species such as Mottled Grey Chloroclysta multistrigaria, Garden Rose Tortrix Acleris variegana and Sycamore Piercer Pammene aurita; as well as two introduced adventive species Cypress-tip Moth Argyresthia cupressella from North America and Ruddy Streak Tachystola acroxantha from Australia.

Sycamore Piercer 27 Jul - Alan Keatley

Other more local firsts included Centre-barred Sallow Atethmia centrago, Early Long-horn Adela cuprella, the first confirmed Dusky Thorn Ennomos fuscantaria, Little Slender Calybites phasianipennella, New Oak Slender Caloptilia robustella and Pale Eggar Trichiura crataegi

Dusky Thorn - Kevin Rylands

Rarer discoveries included three Aethes deaurana, the 10-12th UK records, probably established on site feeding on Alexanders; and three nationally scarce species, Horse Chestnut Pachycnemia hippocastanaria, the first confirmed record for this heathland specialist, New Marsh Cosmet Cosmopterix scribaiella, new to Devon and Sorrel Midget Enteucha acetosae.

Aethes deaurana 10 Jun - Kevin Rylands

Other species recorded included local specialties such as Crescent Dart Agrotis trux, Shore Wainscot Mythimna litoralisDusky Aroga velocella and Beautiful Groundling Caryocolum marmoreumHoary Gymnancyla canella, Sandhill Anerastia lotella and Gorse Knot-horn Pempelia genistella and Sea-rush Case-bearer Coleophora maritimella

Gorse Knot-horn - Paul Bowyer

More familiar species included Scarlet Callimorpha dominula and Jersey Tiger Euplagia quadripunctaria, Blood-vein Timandra comae, Rosy Footman Miltochrista miniata, Old Lady Mormo maura and Pale Calliteara pudibunda and Nut-tree Tussock Colocasia coryli.

Pale Tussock - Kevin Rylands

The clear pick of the migrants was the first Clifden Nonpareil Catocala fraxini for the Recording Area in early September, but another first, Black-tipped Ermine Yponomeuta plumbella, was presumably also a migrant as the foodplant, Spindle, does not occur on site. 

The first Diamondback Plutella xylostella was on 1 Apr, with the first Silver Y Autographa gamma in early June with records through to November with a peak in early September, a Dark Sword-grass Agrotis ipsilon was trapped in mid-August, single Gem Nycterosea obstipata and Scarce Bordered Straw Helicoverpa armigera were with the Clifden with several Vestal Rhodometra sacraria and a few Rush Veneer Nomophila noctuella. A Convolvulus Hawkmoth Agrius convolvuli was found in late September along with the first Rusty-dot Pearl Udea ferrugalis.

Vestal 10 Sep - Luke Harman

Dawlish Warren Moths

Devon Moth Group article

Sunday, 2 January 2022

Sunday 2nd January

A Great Northern Diver was still off John's Watch with a Red-throated Diver close offshore from the seawall. Elsewhere two Water Rail were squealing at the Main Pond, with five Cirl Bunting, three Goldcrest and a Great-spotted Woodpecker on site. 

Wildlife Review 2021 - Butterflies

It was a year of quality if not quantity, with low numbers of many species. Welcomed returns included the first Grayling since 2015 found on Warren Point on the 4-5 September, only the second record in the last 60 years. There was also a reappearance of Dark Green Fritillary with the first confirmed sighting since 2012, in Dead Dolphin Wood on 11 August.

Grayling - Guy Freeman

A Green Hairstreak on 16 June, the fifth record since 2010, suggests that the species may have a continuing foothold on site. However, after records in 2018 and 2019, there were no sightings of Purple Hairstreak, although this treetop butterfly could have easily avoided detection. 
A single summer sighting of a Silver-washed Fritillary is in line with a recent increase in records. It was a poor year for Holly Blue with the first record not until 28 August. Painted Lady also had a poor year with just five scattered records of ones and twos, and after an excellent year in 2020, Clouded Yellow were down to a handful of sightings in September and early October. Other migratory species - Red Admiral and Small White fared better, but numbers weren’t exceptional.

Painted Lady - Alan Keatley
The first butterflies where seen at the end of March with Peacock, Small Tortoiseshell, which saw a welcome increase during the year, Speckled Wood, Comma and Red Admiral, although earlier sightings may have been missed during lockdown. Small Copper and Orange-tip made April appearances, with the latter's eggs found on Cuckooflower in May. Brimstone made it’s one and only appearance on 1 May and the two Wall Brown sightings on 5 May and 29 September did nothing to ease concerns over this species seemingly terminal decline on site. Common Blue, Green-veined and Small White were on the wing by the end of May.

Green-veined White - Alan Keatley

Small Copper, Speckled Wood and, to a lesser extent, Brown Argus, were seen in usual numbers across generations, with mild weather enabling an exceptional third generation Common Blue on 30 October.
Summer butterflies started with Meadow Brown, Large and Small Skipper in June, and Gatekeeper, Ringlet and Large White in July. A Marbled White on 17 July was the only record received this year.

Marbled White - Alan Keatley
With mild autumn weather continuing various butterflies were on the wing until the end of October and into November with a Speckled Wood on 5th, Painted Lady and Small White on 18th and a final Red Admiral on 28th.

Saturday, 1 January 2022

Saturday 1st January

An unseasonably warm start to the year, a stark contrast to the frozen conditions a year ago. A total of 77 species were recorded during the day the full breakdown can be found here

The highlight was an adult Spoonbill that flew north late afternoon, with the juvenile Spoonbill roosting on Finger Point. Also in the estuary the two Black-necked Grebe with counts including 1,600 Dunlin, 710 Oystercatcher, 420 Dark-bellied and a Pale-bellied Brent Geese, 216 Wigeon, 146 Teal, 134 Grey and eight Ringed Plover, 122 Common and two Mediterranean Gull, 117 Turnstone, 107 Bar and a Black-tailed Godwit, 104 Knot, 11 Sanderling, seven Greenshank, two Goldeneye and a Pintail.

Elsewhere a Siberian Chiffchaff was by the Main Pond with 10 Cirl Bunting, three Chiffchaff, three Goldcrest and a Tawny Owl in the bushes and four Great Northern and four Red-throated Diver offshore.

Wildlife News: The mild weather and lack of frosts aided the annual New Year Plant Hunt with a record 46 species in flower including Thrift, Butcher's Broom, Spear Thistle, Scarlet Pimpernel, Rock Samphire, Hogweed, Common Stork's-bill and Early Meadow Grass

The lack of sunshine reduced potential insect activity with a Buff-tailed Bumblebee by the seawall and single Marmalade and Spotted Meliscaeva Hoverfly on the wing. 

Wildlife Review 2021 - Plants, Mosses, Lichens & Fungi

Plants

The traditional BSBI New Year Plant hunt saw a total of 34 (10 non-native) species in flower, a couple more than 2020 but still lower than previous years. Dog-rose Rosa canina and Sweet Alison Lobularia maritima were recorded for the first time, with Sweet Violet Viola odorata and Summer Snowflake Leucojum aestivum also noted. Alexanders Smyrnium olusatrum was previously a regular find but has not flowered for three hunts in a row. 

A total of 438 species were recorded during the year including seven species new to the Recording Area flora, five of these were non-natives including Spring Starflower Ipheion uniflorum and Water Bent Polypogon viridis as well as two species planted on site which have spread to new areas; Russian Vine Fallopia baldschuanica and Mediterranean Spurge Euphorbia characias

Spring Starflower - Kevin Rylands

The two new native species were Giant Horsetail Equisetum telmateia and the dandelion Taraxacum degelii, the first south Devon record for this rare coastal endemic.

Giant Horsetail - Phil Pullen

Four species were rediscovered for the first time in over 30 years; Lesser Stitchwort Stellaria graminea, Smooth Tare Vicia tetrasperma, Meadow Vetchling Lathyrus pratensis and Plum Prunus domestica. Another four appeared for the first time in over 20 years; Dodder Cuscuta epithymum, Grass Vetchling Lathyrus nissolia, Long-headed Poppy Papaver dubium and Spear Mint Mentha spicata. Five of these species appeared after mowing changes following Recording Group advice to the Warren Golf Club.

Dodder - Kevin Rylands

Other notable records included an extensive new population of Mossy Stonecrop Crassula tillea on the Golf Course, another good year for Sand Crocus Romulea columnae, with the 2022 plants in leaf in November, their earliest ever emergence, Small Pondweed Potamogeton berchtoldii in several Golf Course ponds, a good show of Small Adder’s-tongue Ophioglossum azoricum in Greenland Lake and three tideline Sunflower Helianthus annuus.

Small Adder's-tongue - Matthew Knott 

The dry conditions during spring saw many of the clovers struggle to flower, but a spell of wet weather in late April led to a second flush of growth for some species such as Bird's-foot Ornithopus perpusillus, Subterranean Trifolium subterraneum and Bird's-foot Clover T.ornithopodioides.

Bird's-foot - Matt Knott

The spring weather also meant Sea Daffodil Pancratium maritimum and the regular Green-winged Orchid Orchis morio did not flower and only a single Pyramidal Orchid Anacamptis pyramidalis emerged on Warren Point. 

Pyramidal Orchid - Alan Keatley

In wetter areas, Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria, Southern Marsh Orchid Dactylorhiza praetermissa and Marsh Helleborine Epipactis palustris did well, with the latter still flowering in November, outlasting the Autumn Ladies-tresses Spiranthes spiralis. At the eastern end of Greenland Lake, the Bee Orchid Ophrys apifera colony increased.

Dawlish Warren Flora 

Mosses & Liverworts

Both Micheli's Balloonwort Sphaerocarpos michelii and Blue Crystalwort Riccia crystallina were found in new locations around the car park and Go-karts. The Recording Area is one of two Devon locations for these nationally rare liverworts, with the other just the mainland side of the Railway Tunnel, there the populations remain in decline.

Fairy Beads Microlejeunea ulicina was discovered on sallows in the Entrance Bushes, the only new species of the year. 

Lichens

At total of 71 species were noted, with 15 new to the Recording Area. These included the nationally scarce Catillaria nigroclavata, Diploschistes caesioplumbeus and Moelleropsis nebulosi, along with Normandina pulchella (Elf's Ears), Peltigera rufescens and Stenocybe pullulata (Alder Pin).

Increased erosion of the fixed dunes on Warren Point led to further losses of the nationally scarce Peltigera neckeri however a new population was found on the Dune Ridge near the Main Pond.

Fungi

Of the 198 species recorded, 46 were new for the Recording Area taking the site total to over 700 species, but with 20,000 in the UK there are many more to be found.

Collared Earthstar - Kevin Rylands

New fungi recorded during the year included only the fourth English record of Nectriopsis lecanodes on Peltigera lichen and the first Devon records of Grape Hyacinth Anther Smut Antherospora hortensis and Tuberculina sbrozzii on Periwinkle Rust Puccinia vincae. Other new Warren species included Alder Tongue Taphrina alni, a gall on Alder catkins; Blushing Milkcap Lactarius controversus, Redleg Club Typhula erythropus, Rush Disco Dasyscyphus apalus and Yellow Stainer Agaricus xanthodermus

Other records included Birch Knight Tricholoma fulvum, Cloudy Agaric Clitocybe nebularisCreamy Pinkgill Entoloma sericellum and Drab Bonnet Mycena aetites, with showier species such as Collared Earthstar Geastrum triplex, Eyelash Cup Scutellinia scutellata and Scarlet Elfcup Sarcoscypha coccinea

Eyelash Cup - Kevin Rylands

A much improved showing of Blackening Waxcap Hygrocybe conica in Greenland Lake but again no Winter Stalk Puffball Tulostoma brumale.  On a positive note the first Dune Stinkhorn Phallus hadriani for several years was along the Dune Ridge, with Dune Brittlestem Psathyrella ammophila and Dune Conecap Conocybe dunensis.

Dune Brittlestem - Kevin Rylands