Sunday 31 December 2023

Wildlife Review 2023: Birds

A total of 187 species were recorded on site this year with 36 species confirmed breeding, including the second ever breeding for Sparrowhawk, in the same location as the first in 2003, eight pairs of Cirl Bunting, five pairs of Stonechat, two pairs of Little Grebe and one pair of Reed Bunting. However neither Bullfinch or Great Spotted Woodpecker returned after their unexpected 2022 absence. 

Sparrowhawk - David Flack

Four new species for the Warren were reported, Hooded Crow in April, Bluethroat in May, Green-winged Teal in Oct and Pallas's Warbler in November, all await assessment by the Devon Birds Records Committee. Other highlights included new site record counts of the critically endangered Balearic Shearwater (498 in Sep), Great Shearwater (143 in Sep), Ruff (18 in Sep), Yellow-legged Gull (five in Jul), Collared Dove (16 in Aug), Whitethroat (31 in Apr), Long-tailed Tit (40 in Nov) and Cirl Bunting (24 in Dec). 

Other rarities reported included the 4th record of Goshawk, 4-5th records of Cory's Shearwater, 8th record of Mandarin and Nightingale14-15th records of Caspian Gull and 15th record of Whooper Swan and Hen Harrier

Cirl Bunting - Dave Jewell

Omissions from the year list included Slavonian Grebe (for the first time ever), Black-necked Grebe, Brambling, Coot, Nuthatch, Wryneck, Yellow-browed Warbler and for the 5th year in a row, Black-throated Diver.


Another (un)seasonably warm New Year’s Day, saw a good total of 85 species recorded. This tally included a few lingering scarcities included Cetti's Warbler, Spoonbill, two Avocet and three Eider with two Egyptian Geese new arrivals. The overwintering Sandwich Tern however waited until the 2nd to make an appearance, with the Dartford Warbler not revealing itself until the 19th. 

Eygptian Goose - Kevin Rylands

Seawatching on the 7th produced the first January record of Leach's Petrel with a Storm Petrel almost as rare for the time of year, the same weather saw a Scaup and 24 Cattle Egret sheltering in the estuary. Other highlights included two Whooper Swan E on the 15th, a Purple Sandpiper at Langstone Rock the next day and the first January Marsh Harrier over on the 21st.

Green Woodpecker - Dean Hall

Despite some cold weather at the end of the month, counts from the estuary continue to decline with peaks of 1035 Oystercatcher, 188 Bar-tailed Godwit, 182 Grey Plover and 15 Red-breasted Merganser. Offshore Great-crested Grebe peaked at just 42 early month with a max of just 17 Red-throated Diver. Scarcer species included a Lapwing on 14th and a Greylag Goose on 17th.


The two juvenile Spoonbill remained throughout, tending to favour Exmouth on low tides, an adult was a brief visitor on the 11th. Two Avocet reappeared in the estuary mid-month with an adult Yellow-legged Gull on Bull Hill on the 19th. 

Spoonbill - Alan Keatley

Also on the 11th, a flock of 358 Dark-bellied Brent Geese held 63 juveniles, showing good overwinter survival. Conversely a roosting flock of just 16 Red-breasted Merganser on the 21st, was the winter peak count (cf. 204 in Dec 2000).

Offshore a Red-necked Grebemoulting into breeding plumage, arrived with an increase of Great Crested Grebe on the 11th. Red-throated Diver peaked at 23 on the 22nd, one of just four double figure counts in the early year. 

The Dartford Warbler appeared on a couple of occasions, but the Cetti's Warbler was not reported. A Short-eared Owl was on Warren Point on the 8th with the earliest ever Red Kite over the next day. The month ended with a Water Pipit feeding in the Bight with a Scandinavian Rock Pipit on the 27th. 

Dartford Warbler - Lee Collins


A Firecrest on 1st was a typically early migrant, with two others during the month, including a lingering bird, occasionally in song. It was a wait for the next spring arrivals though with the first Wheatear a welcome sight on the 15th; watched arriving over the sea it was one of six that made landfall that day. The first six Chiffchaff also arrived together three days later with the first Sand Martin another three days later on the 21st.

Wheatear - Lee Collins

The morning of the 19th saw some notable overhead migration with 233 Chaffinch heading NE with a Stock Dove amongst 120 Woodpigeon, 115 Starling and Siskin. A total of 13 Blue Tit also moved through site the same day.

The first migrant Sandwich Tern of the year was offshore on the 11th, the last day the Red-necked Grebe was seen, having been refound at the end of February.

It was a good month for brief staying gulls with a first winter Glaucous Gull on Bull Hill on the 6th, having been last (& first) seen at Topsham on 26 February, followed  by a Caspian Gull on the 24th and an Iceland Gull on the 26th, both first winters on Finger Point.

Iceland Gull - David Flack

The 21st saw a mix of joy and frustration, the joy of watching four Alpine Swift over the Eastdon ridge for several hours and the frustration of one getting as close as 400m from the Recording Area boundary! This pattern was repeated for several days with some compensation of a Spotted Redshankthe Starcross bird getting itchy feet, on the 21st and a Little Ringed Plover north on the 23rd. 

The strangest record was probably a male Pheasant foraging below Langstone Rock on the exposed reefs at low tide on the 11th. The month ended with the first Willow Warbler on the 28th and the first Swallow of summer on the 30th.

Caspian Gull - Lee Collins


New migrants arrived through the month with a site record 31 Whitethroat on the 27th, first dates including Blackcap on 1st, Whimbrel on 4th, House Martin and the first of two Osprey on 6th, Tree Pipit on 13th, Grasshopper Warbler and Whitethroat on 17th, Sedge Warbler, Hobby and Redstart on 18th, Reed Warbler and Whinchat on 21st, Garden Warbler on 27th and Swift on 28th. 

Willow Warbler - Alan Keatley

Sandwich Tern passage peaked at just 62 on 15th, the same day the first Common Tern arrived. Also offshore a Little Gull on 24-28th, the first two Little Tern on 27th and just two Arctic Skua and one (!) Manx Shearwater reported. 

Wader passage included at least 175 Whimbrel arriving on 28th, 63 Bar-tailed Godwit on 22nd, 280 Dunlin on 27th and 41 Ringed Plover on 30th.

Whimbrel - Alan Keatley

Scarcities were headlined by  the long overdue first Hooded Crow for the Warren over Greenland Lake on 3rd, a Great White Egret west offshore and a Short-eared Owl on Warren Point on 15th, a pair of Mandarin on the sea on 18th, the first since  April 2016, and just the fourth spring record of Ring Ouzel, at Langstone Rock on 22nd.

The month ended with the first fledged Stonechat of the year alongside the first two female Whinchat on 30th.

Stonechat - Dean Hall


A wet start to the month with two Pomarine Skua and a Little Gull on 4th, with just two other Pomarine and three Arctic Skua during the month. Also offshore, a peak of 13 Great Northern Diver on 13th, a Puffin on 19th, two Little Tern, two Arctic Tern (on 21st), but a peak of just 27 Sandwich and one Common Tern, continuing recent poor springs. 

A male Red-spotted Bluethroat in scrub between the Main Pond and the Golf Course on 5th was another long-awaited Warren first to elude all but the fortunate finders. The month was however generally quiet for migrants, with singles of Cuckoo on 5th, Lesser Whitethroat on 6th and Spotted Flycatcher on 6th & 14th and just five Sand and one double figure count of House Martin.

Wader passage included a Little Stint on 25th, two Avocet on offshore sandbars on 29th, just the fourth sighting for the month, 19 Black-tailed Godwit on 20th and two Little Ringed Plover on 14th and a peak count of 108 Sanderling on 22nd.

Sanderling - Lee Collins

Two Siskin overhead on 20th may have been the first post-breeding migrants, followed closely by a Cuckoo next day. An acredula Willow Warbler on 27th was still heading north as were a site record three Hobby on 29th, following a late pulse of 96 Swift.

After last year's poor breeding season it was great to see flocks of up to 80 juvenile Starling around Greenland Lake at the end of the month where the first fledged Cirl Bunting were present on 28th.  

Starling - Alan Keatley


As in 2022, there were reduced broods of Little Grebe and Moorhen but this year it was high instead of low water levels causing problems. The same issues also prevented any Mallard or Canada Geese broods from hatching, but the Mute Swan hatched successfully again moving to the estuary, but the cygnets were lost overnight mid month. At least eight male Cirl Bunting were holding territory, with five pairs of Stonechat, Reed Warbler holding territory at the Main and Golf Course ponds and a pair of Sparrowhawk bred for only the second time fledging two young, establishing their nest whilst the adjacent path was flooded.

Little Grebe - Alan Keatley

Spring migration continued into the start of the moth with Lesser Whitethroat on 1st, a Little Stint on 1-4th, also on 4th; 61 Ringed Plover, a Hobby and a probable Grey-headed Wagtail thunbergi calling overhead. A Coal Tit was an early post breeding bird on 3-11th, with two juvenile Egyptian Geese on 25th and the year's third Cuckoo on 29th.

Little Stint - Lee Collins

Waders started returning mid-month, after one on 3rd, five Redshank returned on the 17th, a count of 76 Curlew, also on 17th was the first sign of return passage, rapidly climbing to 145 by the 25th, and two Little Ringed Plover and a Greenshank on the 21st.

Grey Plover - Alan Keatley

The first four Balearic Shearwater flew S on 17 Jun, with a lingering Arctic Skua to 17th, a Pomarine Skua on 3rd, a peak of 25 Sandwich and just the one Common Tern (on 11th).


The month opened with an influx of Mediterranean Gull, with 68 on 1st rising again to a minimum of 169 feeding offshore the next day, the year’s peak. The first juvenile Sandwich Tern arrived on the 7th;  but numbers were low with a peak of 63 (cf. 201 last year.). After a blank spring, the third in five years, two Roseate Tern appeared on 2nd with others on 4th & 20th. After the first juvenile Yellow-legged Gull on 8th, numbers increased to five by 22nd. 

Sandwich Tern - Lee Collins

An unseasonal Red-breasted Merganser was in the estuary on 6th, with the first returning Teal the next day. The first Common Sandpiper of the year was reported on 8th, peaking at nine on 20th, when Redshank reached three figures. Other arrivals included three Black-tailed Godwit on 2nd, an adult and juvenile Little Ringed Plover intermittently on 9-18th, with three juveniles on 20th, a Knot on 16th and a Snipe on Warren Point on 25th

The last Red Kite of the year was on 3rd, but apart from an early Spotted Flycatcher on 7th, other migrants didn’t arrive until the last week; on 23rd the first Sedge and Willow Warbler with a Great Spotted Woodpecker was on Warren Point, and on 25th a Kingfisher was at the Main Pond. 

It was a good month for seawatching with three Arctic Skua lingering offshore on 1st, with two on 8th, five on 14th peaking at 12 next day when a probable Long-tailed flew S. Four Pomarine Skua flew s on 8th with three lingering the next day and perhaps again on 14-15th. Mobile birds feeding around Lyme Bay made numbers on individuals difficult to calculate. Three Great Skua also on 14th were the first for the year, after the first blank spring since 1999.

summering Great Northern Diver - Alan Keatley

Balearic Shearwater were present throughout in low numbers with a peak of seven on 23rd, the day after a large shearwater, considered likely to be Cory’s flew S. The month ended with three Storm Petrel and just the fourth Warren record of Cory's Shearwater SW on 30th.

Mediterranean Gull (juvenile) - Lee Collins


The sea remained productive at the start of the month with Storm Petrel almost daily to 13th, with 15 on 2nd the peak. The skuas also remained with nine Arctic and four Pomarine on 5th, when 231 Sandwich Tern were counted. Three Roseate Tern were present on 2nd, with singles on 3rd & 8th, three was also the peak count for Arctic and Little Tern on 19th, when 81 Common Tern were present. 

Roseate Tern - Lee Collins

A Wood Sandpiper on 4th (the 45th site record) and a Green Sandpiper on 20th, both only touched down briefly in the estuary before searching out fresher water. previously a scarce autumn migrant Whimbrel peaked at 62 on 6th with an unseasonal Golden Plover present the next day, whilst the first wigeon returned on 20th and an adult Osprey took up residence on the estuary from 24th.

Osprey - Alan Keatley

Autumn migration kicked up a gear on 6th when a Pied Flycatcher in the Entrance Bushes and a 1cy Marsh Harrier heading SW along the spit vied for bird of the day, with a max of 13 Willow Warbler and the only autumn Whinchat the same day. Other migrants during the month included early Meadow Pipit (7th) and Goldcrest (12th), an immature Redstart on 13th, a Lesser Whitethroat on 26th and on 31st, two Spotted Flycatcher and a Nightjar, the latter roosting on a fence during the day, the 21st site record.

Marsh Harrier - Lee Collins


The month began with two Hobby jousting over Finger Point on 1st, with one off the seawall on 2nd  flushing a Kingfisher which it then began hunting, the Kingfisher survived by diving into sea to avoid capture

A juvenile Spoonbill arrived on 3rd seen again on 19-20th, with two adults on 18th. Other records from the estuary included 97 Knot on 9th, 94 Pale-bellied Brent Geese on 13th, many of which remained for several months, two juvenile Little Stint and a Spotted Redshank on 10th, the latter joined by a second on 14th, the first multiple record since Feb 2000. The 13th also saw the arrival of 11 juvenile Curlew Sandpiper with a couple staying until 30th, the first two Ruff of the year arrived on 15th, with a flock of 18 on 17th an unexpected site record; 12 on 28 Dec 1960 being the only previous double-figure count. 

Knot - Alan Keatley

Summer departures included four Swift on 1st, Sedge Warbler on 1st & 16th, Reed Warbler on 9th, Spotted Flycatcher on 10th & 23rd, Sand Martin on 24th and Yellow Wagtail on 30th. heading the other way the first Pintail on 16-17th, Dark-bellied Brent Goose and Golden Plover on 16th, Little Grebe on 22nd and Water Rail on 28th, both at the Main Pond and two Lesser Redpoll over on 28th.

Blackcap - Alan Keatley

Although 39 Balearic Shearwater were offshore on 1st, seawatching didn't really pick up until mid month when an incredible 498 Balearic Shearwater flew SW on 16th. This is over 2% of the global population. The previous record was 287 on 29 Aug 2022. The first Black Tern of the year also moved through.

Hurricane Lee blew through on 20th with 12 Cory's Shearwater SW, just the fifth record. Balearic Shearwater were constantly on the move with a minimum 423 counted, as were 20 Storm Petrel20 Arctic & two Pomarine Skua, and another Black Tern, but numbers difficult to judge in the swell.  

Nigel's remnants on 24th has less impact with 108 Balearic Shearwater and 242 next day. Storm Agnes on 27th provided more great seawatching with 143 Great Shearwater SW, totally eclipsing the previous high of eight in July 2017. An incredible 84 of these passed in just 15 minutes. Also offshore 20 Arctic and a Pomarine Skua, single Black and Little Tern, and 127 Balearic, two Manx Shearwater and single Sooty and Cory's completing the site's second five shearwater day.

Other scarcities included three Gadwall on 6th, a Great White Egret E offshore on 7th, a Grasshopper Warbler on 9th, two Osprey on 30th with singles on seven dates, and the eight record of Nightingale on 29th, the first since 24 Aug 2008.

Osprey - Lee Collins


An immature Pied Flycatcher in Dead Dolphin Wood on 1st was a good start to the month, the second of the year, as was the Ring Ouzel on 14th, other late migrants included a Whitethroat until 12th, two House Martin on 14th, 10 Wheatear on seven dates and a juvenile Osprey from 10th-17th. 

Arrivals included Coal Tit on 8th, the first of five, a Dartford Warbler from 10th, the first of five Merlin and just two Mistle Thrush through on 11th, the first Bullfinch since Feb on 12th, Firecrest on 15th & 29th, the year's only Treecreeper on 17th-19th, a Cetti's Warbler from 23rd, four Redwing on 26th and a Water Pipit from 29th. 

A moulting drake Green-winged Teal from 13th - 28th was the highlight, another first for the Recording Area. Also in the estuary during the month 36 Cattle Egret on 8th, a late 1cy Yellow-legged Gull on Bull Hill on 11th, a ♂ Ruff and last month's Spotted Redshank the next day, with the latter again on 29th. The 18th saw a big arrival of wildfowl with the first four-figure count of Wigeon, three Pintail, two Shoveler and the first Red-breasted Merganser of the winter. 

Green-winged Teal - Alan Keatley

Three immature Spoonbill on 19th increased to five the next day with two staying into November as did an adult appearing on 28th. A 3cy Caspian Gull on 23rd had been ringed as a chick in the nest at IJsselmeer, Noord-Holland, The Netherlands on 11 Jun 2021. 

Spoonbill - Alan Keatley

Arctic Skua were present throughout offshore with the last two on 16th, when an Arctic Tern was also present. Balearic Shearwater peaked at 16 on 1st with 47 during the month, a late Cory's Shearwater on 29th was only the 5th record. 

Other scarcities included just the fourth record of Goshawk on 21st, the first since Nov 2010, Short-eared Owl on 19th & 22nd, a Greylag Goose on 20th, the first Jack Snipe next day and an immature female Scaup to close the month on 30th.


Storm Ciaran blew through on 2nd but the most notable sighting was Whitethroat in the Buffer Zone, the first November record for the Warren. other late summer migrants included Blackcap on 4th, 17th & 26th, Swallow on 4th, 7th & 11th and Wheatear on 5th and 10th. 

A good autumn for Woodpigeon with a drawn-out passage peaking in Nov, with just under 40,000 counted between 3rd & 7th, with another 22,260 over on 11th and 10,390 on 17th, the last movement. Morning vis-mig watches also produced the Goshawk again and a peak of 264 Chaffinch on 6th,  a juvenile Hen Harrier on 7th, the 15th Warren record and the first since 3rd Nov 2010, three different Great White Egret, the first Fieldfare and the year's only Yellowhammer on 11th.

A late Curlew Sandpiper was in the estuary on 5-6th, with the Spotted Redshank on 12th & 25th, an adult Yellow-legged Gull on 13th and a Lapwing on 20th. The second Purple Sandpiper of the year was at Langstone Rock on 25th.

Bar-tailed Godwit - Dean Hall

Seawatching produced a juvenile Common Tern on 3rd, the latest since a long-stayer that remained until 3 Dec 2006, a Barnacle Goose in off on 5th, two, possibly three Leach's Petrel on 8th along with Sooty Shearwater and 15 Storm Petrel, two Little Gull on 12th, the first Grey Phalarope of the year and a late Manx Shearwater the next day, three Velvet Scoter, also new for the year on 14th, a redhead Goosander on 21st, the first record since Oct 2020, and a Velvet Scoter on 25th.

The migrant highlight was the fourth new species for the year, a Pallas's Warbler mobile around the Entrance Bushes on 26th-28th. A Short-eared Owl and flock of 40 Long-tailed Tit were on site on 8th, the latter equalling the record from November 1985, Firecrest were present intermittently from 12th with two on 18th & 28th, and Siberian Chiffchaff on 18th & 23-26th. The Cetti's and Dartford Warbler remained, both being only seen on three dates.

Pallas's Warbler - Jim Summers


Single Mistle Thrush on 1st & 8th and a pair on 9th were perhaps scoping out breeding territories, Firecrest occasionally visited from Shutterton with two on 5th and singles on 8th, 17th & 20th, a site record 24 Cirl Bunting on 16th and the Cetti's and Dartford Warbler remained elusive, only recorded on two and three dates respectively.

Offshore three Velvet Scoter flew SW on 3rd, when eight Eider arrived, staying into 2024, with a Grey Phalarope and a Little Gull on 8th, peaks of 12 Great Northern and nine Red-throated Diver and a late Manx Shearwater on 30th.

Eider - Alan Keatley

In the estuary four Lapwing on 2nd with a single on 13th, an adult Spoonbill was present 8-15th, the Spotted Redshank again on 11th and a Jack Snipe on 17th with a Scandinavian Herring Gull the same day, the first record of this rare winter visitor since 31 December 2014.

Scandinavian Herring Gull - David Flack

Happy New Year to all. Many thanks to those who share their sightings with Recording Group. Good & safe birding for 2024 and hope to see you on the Warren soon.

The hide unfortunately remains closed and due to continuing erosion there remains no public access to the surrounding viewing areas. The Recording Group would like to thank the Warren Golf Club and Devon Wildlife Trust for enabling long-standing monitoring efforts to continue.

Sunday 31st December

 A 1.25 hour seawatch saw 49 Kittiwake, 35 Gannet, two Fulmar and two Common Scoter fly SW first thing with six Eider and four Great Northern Diver close inshore.

Several hundred Black-tailed Godwit were in the saltmarsh briefly during the morning, the first downriver influx this year. Also in the estuary 278 Wigeon, 156 Grey Plover, 152 Dark-bellied Brent Geese, 136 Bar-tailed Godwit, 135 Knot, eight Red-breasted Merganser, four Greenshank and a fifth Great Northern Diver.

Saturday 30 December 2023

Saturday 30th December

A Manx Shearwater SW was an unseasonal highlight during a 1.5 hour seawatch, also passing with 190 Gannet, 172 Kittiwake, 145 auks, approximately a 50/50 split with those close enough to identify, five Red-throated Diver and three Fulmar. Also offshore seven Eider and two Great Northern Diver.

Counts from the estuary included c2345 Dunlin, 208 Wigeon, 173 Teal, 138 Grey and 22 Ringed Plover, 132 Bar and three Black-tailed Godwit, 150 Redshank, 95 Dark and a single Pale-bellied Brent Goose, 89 Knot, 23 Sanderling and single Mediterranean Gull and Red-breasted Merganser.

Elsewhere three Chiffchaff and two Goldcrest were in the blown out bushes and a second Grey Wagtail joined the wintering bird around the Entrance Bushes.

Wildlife Review 2023: Bugs

Although used as a generic name for many insects, True Bugs are in fact there own order, the Heteroptera. Unlike the beetles, they have no jaws using piercing mouthparts to feed, bugs literally suck. 

A total of 116 species were identified this year, on par with 106 in 2022 and 114 in 2021, with 22 new species added to the site audit. 

Shieldbugs (Pentatomaidae) are one of the more recognisable families.  Although only seven species were recorded this year, these did include a new find, Bronze Shieldbug Troilus luridus on 3rd August. Others seen were Bishop's Mitre Aelia acuminata, Forest Pentatoma rufipes, Green Palomena prasina, Gorse Piezodorus lituratusHairy Dolycoris baccarum and Turtle Shieldbug Podops inuncta

Bronze Shieldbug Troilus luridus - Alan Keatley

Leatherbugs (Coreidae) resemble large brown shieldbugs. Familiar species were recorded included the ubiquitous Dock Bug Coreus marginatus, Denticulate Coriomeris denticulatus and Rhombic Leatherbug Syromastus rhombeus, as well as the nationally scarce Slender-horned Leatherbug Ceraleptus lividus

Rhombic Leatherbug Syromastus rhombeus - Alan Keatley

Good numbers of groundbugs (Lygaeidae) were found on site, many throughout the year with 15 species recorded.  The discovery of the nationally scarce Megalonotus dilatatus on 5 Oct was a highlight, with three other new species for the Recording Area during the year; Nysius huttoni, European Cinchbug Ischodemus sabuleti and Cymus melanocephalus.

Megalonotus dilatatus - Alan Keatley

The distinctive and local Beosus maritimus is often encountered in the dunes, with the dune groundbug Trapezonotus arenarius, also making occasional appearances at one of its few Devon sites.

Amongst the other species noted included Nettle Groundbug Heterogaster urticae, rare in Devon, the county scarcity Peritrechus geniculatus, the glossy Plinthisus brevipennis, the arboreal Birch Catkin Bug Kleidocerys resedae and the hairy Stygnocoris sabulosus.

Birch Catkin Bug Kleidocerys resedae - Alan Keatley

The plant bugs (Miridae) are one of the larger families, a good number of species are represented on site, with over 20 recorded this year.

Often found nectaring on umbellifers, the most widespread are the greenish Potato Capsid Closterotomus norwegicus, Common Green Capsid Lygocoris pabulinus and Black-kneed Capsid Blepharidopterus angulatus, with the more varied Deraeocoris flavilinea and D. ruber, sometimes also joined by the orange spotted Grypocoris stysi.

Deraeocoris flavilinea - Alan Keatley

The latter species was also often around nettles along with Heterotoma planicornis, Liocoris tripustulatus and Plagiognathus arbustorum, the scarce Dicyphus annulatus and Macrotylus paykulli were on Restharrow with Tuponia mixticolor on Tamarisk.

Liocoris tripustulatus - Kevin Rylands

Other mirids included the grass bugs Acetropis gimmerthalii, Notostira elongata and Stenodema laevigata, the long-legged Phytocoris varipes, the jumping Orthocephalus saltator, and new for site and possibly Devon, the ant mimic Pilophorus perplexus.

Pilophorus perplexus - Alan Keatley

The scentless plant bugs (Rhopalidae) were represented by the distinctive red & black Corizus hyoscyami, with Spurge bugs (Stenocephalidae) by Dicranocephalus agilis. This nationally scarce dune bug is numerous on site throughout the year. 

Smaller groups included the lacebugs (Tingidae) with Acalypta parvula, Agramma laeta, and new to the Warren, Kalama tricornis. There were also three damselbugs (Nabidae); Ant Himacerus mirimicoides, Common Nabis rugosus and Field N. ferus.

Field Damselbug Nabis ferus - Alan Keatley

The only beetbug (Piesmatidae) recorded was the locally scarce Parapiesma quadratum in the saltmarsh and Restharrow held a third specialist, the Warrens' only stiltbug (Berytidae) representative, Gampsocoris punctipes.

Parapiesma quadratum - Kevin Rylands

The hoppers (Homoptera) are a group of diverse jumping bugs, 19 species across five families were recorded this year.

Leafhoppers (Cicadllidae) are the largest family with the first of the year Euselis incisus found in early January. Expected species included Oncopsis flavicollis on birch, Eupterycyba jucunda on alder, the brightly patterned Eupteryx melissae, E. thoulessi and E. urticae on mallow, Water Mint and nettles respectively, and the bright green Cicadella viridis in wet grassland.

Euselis incisus - Alan Keatley

Five species were recorded new to the Recording Area, Megopthalmus scabripennis on 30th May, Balclutha punctata and Deltocephalus pulicaris in the dune grassland on 26th August, Thamnotettix dilutior on oak on 15th September and Alnetoidea alneti on Alder on 8th October. 

Megopthalmus scabripennis - Alan Keatley

Two planthoppers (Delphacidae), were recorded, Kelisia sabulosus across the site on Sand Sedge and in June Dicranotropis hanata was another new bug for the site; a widespread, but under recorded small species found on various grasses. 

Kelisia sabulosus - Alan Keatley

The first froghopper (Aphrophoridae) of the year was Neophilaenus lineatus in February, the first cuckoo-spit, formed by the larva of the Common Froghopper Philaenus spumarius was noted on 3rd May. Alder Spittlebug Aphrophora alni were on Alder in May with Aphrophora salicina on willows in July.

Two species were lone representatives, Tachycixius pilosus, a lacehopper (Cixiidae) and Issus coleoptratus, an Issidae.

Issus coleoptratus - Kevin Rylands

The jumping plant lice (Psyllidae), were largely recorded from their galls with Trioza alacris on Bay, T. centranthi on Red Valerian, T. remota on oak and T. urticae on nettle. Two species were recorded as adults, Cacopsylla fulguralis on Elaeagnus and new for the Recording Area, Bactericera crithmi on Rock Samphire.

By far the largest family of bugs are the ubiquitous aphids (Aphididae). In general aphids can be difficult to identify to species level, although the food plant can be a useful clue. New species identified this year included Megoura viciae on vetch, Therioaphis ononidis on Restharrow, Uroleucon aeneum on thistle, Aphis urticata on nettle and Woolly Apple Aphid Eriosoma lanigerum.

Woolly Apple Aphid Eriosoma lanigerum - Alan Keatley

Other expected species included the American Lupin Aphid Macrosiphum albifrons on Tree Lupin, Giant Willow Aphid Tuberolachnus salignus, Drepanosiphum plataniodis on Sycamore, Crypturapius grassi on Italian Alder, Aphis oenotherae on Evening Primrose, Laingla psammae in Marram flowers and the gall causers, Hayhurstia atriplicis on oraches and Thecabius affinis on poplars.

Two scale insects were recorded, Brown Soft Scale Coccus herperidum and Mussel Scale Ledidosaphes ulmi, new for the Recording Area.

Mussel Scale Ledidosaphes ulmi - Kevin Rylands